A practical guide for cultivating vegetables Profitably- Piet Stork
The Bible to commercial Vegetable production. Author Piet Stork
PART 1 1.1 About the author 1.2 How to use this manual. 1.3 General aspects before establishing crops. 1.4 Possible needs to become commercialized. 1.5 Mono cropping. 1.6 The risk factor. 1.7 Production costs possible yields & profits. 1.8 Vegetables and health.
PLANNING & RECORD KEEPING 2.1 Make planning a priority and be sure to do careful market research. 2.2 Aspects that is essential to plan properly. 2.3 Labour requirements and safety measures for the farmer, his family and farm workers.
CLIMATE FOR VEGETABLE CROPS 3.1 Climatic effects and zone areas for crops. 3.2 Cool and warm seasonal crops. 3.3 Temperature and temperature range that is suitable for vegetable growth. 3.4 Table 1 indicates the ideal temperature range for vegetable crops. 3.5 Humidity and vegetables. 3.6 Frost hardy and non hardy vegetable crops. 3.7 Light and day length. 3.8 Wind damage. 3.9 Rainfall and amount of water to irrigate 1Ha. 3.10 Importance of cultivar choices. 3.11 Bolting or premature flowering of some vegetable crops
SEED - NURSERIES AND PRODUCING SEEDLINGS 4.1 Vegetable seed. 4.2 Use Certified tested seed. 4.2 (A) Produce or make your own seed 4.3 Do your own germination tests. 4.3(A) Storage and lifespan of seed. 4.4 Seed and seedlings from nurseries. 4.5 Hybrid F1 seed. 4.6 Producing seedlings in seed trays. 4.7 Covering floor space for seed trays. 4.8 Sterilizing and re-using of seed trays. 4.9 Establish seed in seed trays. 4.10 Build your own Shade Net House to produce seedlings. 4.11 Importance of a growing chamber. 4.12 Temperatures for seedlings. 4.13 Transplanting time for seedlings. 4.14 Hardening off - Seedlings in trays. 4.15 Seedling diseases.
SOIL FOR VEGETABLE CROPS 5.1 Introduction.
5.2 The living soil and the importance of it. 5.3 Soil requirements for vegetables. 5.3.1 Soil with a lack of organic matter. 5.3.2 Compact soils. 5.3.3 Manage your soil well. 5.3.4 Soil types. 5.5.5 Different soils and what to look for. 5.3.6 Soil acidic and Ph of the soil water content. 5.3.7 Leaf & sap analysis.
SOIL ANALYSIS TEST AND THE INTERPRETATION OF THE SOIL TEST 5 A (1) Soil test analysis and the importance to the interpretation of it. 5 A (2) Info that must be accommodated by a soil analysis test. 5 A (3) How to take a soil sample and hand it in for a soil analysis test. 5 A (4) Info that must assist a soil sample.
SOIL PREPARATION AND SEEDLING PRODUCTION IN SOIL 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 Steps to prepare soil/s. 6.3 A test how to determine the drainage of soils. 6.4 Produce seedlings in soil. 6.5 Transplanting seedlings from soil seedbeds. 6.6 Establish seed directly in the prepared land. 6.7 Mulching or covering of crops. 6.8 Transplanting seedlings from seed trays. 6.9 Transplanting seedlings from soil seedbeds. 6.10 How to fill the gaps after a poor stand.
IMPLEMENTS AND EQUIPMENT 7.1 Introduction. 7.1 Know your implements and all your equipment. 7.1.1 Tractors. 7.1.2 Moldboard ploughs. 7.1.3. Disk ploughs. 7.1.4 Chisels. 7.1.5 Rotary tillers. 7.1 6 Tinned cultivators. 7.1.7 Harrows. 7.1.8 Rippers. 7.2 Other hand/tools and equipment
ORGANIC MATTER GREEN MANURE AND HOW TO MAKE COMPOST 8.1 Animal manure and the value of it. 8.2 Green manure. 8.3 Compost and how to make it. 8.4 Commercial farmers make their own compost
ORGANIC FARMING 9.1 Introduction. 9.2 Organic farming and what to look for – rules and regulations that is important to know before starting to produce organically,
TRAINING (TRELLISING) AND RIDGING 10.1 Introduction. 10.2 Trellising of plants. 10.3 Ridging of crops.
SPACING OF PLANTS 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Calculations for plant spacing. 11.3 Spacing crops in Greenhouses.
WATER 12.1 Introduction. 12.2 Water sources. 12.3 How much water. 12.4 Rainfall and other measuring meters. 12.4.1 Use a spade to measure the soil water content. 12.4.2 Tension soil water meters. 12.4.3 Soil moisture data loggers.
IRRIGATION 13.1 Introduction. 13.2 Irrigating of crops and watch out for the correct methods. 13.3 Guidelines for irrigation. 13.4 Irrigation and root depth. 13.5 Irrigation systems. 13.6 Poor design of irrigation systems. 13.7 Dripper systems-nutrients through the drippers and deficiencies,
FERTILZATION 14.1 Introduction. 14.2 Incorrect fertilizing of crops. 14.3 Plant nutrient and requirements. 14.4 Organic and in-organic fertilizers. 14.5 Use the right kind of lime. 14.6 Top or side dressings. 14.7 Example of an average fertilizer program. 14.8 Fertilizers for indeterminate tomatoes. 14.9 How to apply granular fertilizers. 14.10 How to apply fertilizers on a small scale. 14.11 Foliar sprays could play an important role. 14.11.1 Micro elements and shortages of it. 14.11.2 Fertilizers through a dripper system. 14.12 Chemical through the irrigation system. 14.13 Elements requirements and deficiencies. 14(A)1 Sowing seed. 14(A)2 Thinning of seedling plants.
WEED CONTROL 15.1 Introduction. 15.2 Using Herbicides. 15.2.1 Types of Herbicides. 15.2.2 Herbicides and their chemical actions on weeds.
CROP ROTATION AND SOIL IMPROVEMENT 16 Introduction. 16.1 Crop rotation. 16.2 Rotating of crops and nutritional abilities. 16.3 Example of crop rotation. 16.4 Reasons for crop rotation. 16.5 Soil improvement. 16.5.1 Benefit of green manure. 16.5.2 Leguminous crops that fix nitrogen N on the pod bearing plants roots. 16.5.3 Bio fumigation.
INSECT INSECTS - DISEASES VIRUSES PHYSICAL DISORDERS DISCRIPTIONS AND GMO CROPS 18.1 Introduction. 18.2 The main parts of plants that insects and diseases attacks. 18.3 G M O – crops. 18.4(A) Guidelines to control insects/diseases. 18.5 Resistance to diseases and insects. 18.4 INSECTS & DESCRIPTIONS. 18.4(A) Introduction. 18.4.1 Root not nematodes. 18.4.2 Cutworms. 18.4.3 Aphids. 18.4.4 Trips. 18.4.5 Diamond back moth. 18.4.6 Bragada bugs. 18.4.7 Bollworms. 18.4.8. Loopers. 18.4.9 Red spider mites . 18.4.10 Leaf miners. 18.4.11 Pumpkin flies. 18.4.12 White flies 18.4.13 Lady birds. 18.4.14 Spotted maize beetle. 18.4.15 Stink bugs. 18.4.16 CMR Beetle. 18.5 (A) DISEASES. 18.5 (A)1 Introduction. 18.5.6 Downy mildew. 1 8.5.7 Black rot. 18.5.8 Brown rust. 18.5.9 Bacterial cancer. 18.5.10 Bacterial spot. 18.5.11 Fusaruim. 18.5.12 Anthracnose. 18.5.13 Leafe spot. 18.5.14 Botrytis. 18.5.15 Bacterial wild. 18.5.16 Phytoptora and Phythium. 18.5.17 White bulb rot. 18.6 PLANT VIRUSES. 18.6 Introduction.
18.6.1 Tomato mosaic virus TMV. 18.6.2 Potato virus PVY. 18.7(B) PHYSICAL DISORDERS. 18.7(B) Introduction. 18.7 Physical disorders descriptions. 18.7.1 Cat face. 18.7.2. Cracking of fruits. 18.7.3 Blossom end rot. 18.7.4 Sun scald. 18.7.5 Zipping. 18.7.6 Spider track. 18.7.7 Puffiness. 18.7.8 Rain check. 18.7.9 Blossom drop. 18.7.10 Malformed fruits. 18 .7.11. Flower and fruit drop.
GIUDELINES TO CONTROL INSECTS AND DISEASES 19.1 Introduction. 19.2 Guidelines to control insects and diseases. 19.3 Natural ways to control insects and diseases.
IMPORTANT MEASUREMENTS TO CONTROL INSECT AND DISEASES 20.1 Introduction. 20.2 Common reasons for failure to control insects and diseases. 20.3 Effective control measurements for insects and diseases. 20.4 Spraying equipment. 20.5 Safeguard against poisoning. 20.6 Chemical spraying equipment. 20.7 Spraying volumes and droplet sizes. 20.7.1 Insecticide timing. 20.7.2 Spraying volumes. 20.7.3 Droplet sizes. 20.8 Ph. of the chemical spraying water. 20.9 Resistant of insects to chemicals. 20.10 Biological control of insects.20.11Guidelines for a spraying program 20.12 Build your own chemical store.
PRODUCING VEGETABLES UNDER PROTECTION. 21.1 Production of vegetables under protection more or less as for Hydroponics systems. 21.1.1 Advantages and disadvantages of Shade Net Houses. 21.1.2 Shade net for Shade Net Houses. 21.2 Build your own Shade Net House. 21.3 Production installation and the establishing of high value crops in a Shade Net House. 21.3.1 Soil preparation in Shade Net Houses. 21.3.2 Installation in Shade Net Houses. 21.3.3 Establish seedlings in Shade Net Houses. 21.3.4 Irrigation in Greenhouses. 21.4 Production cost of crops in Tunnels. 21.4.1 Trellising crops in Greenhouses. 21.5 Pepper production inside Green Houses. 21.6 Cucumber production inside Green Houses.
21.7 Temperature control in Tunnels. 21.8 NFT Hydroponics systems. 21.9 Mulching of crops in Greenhouses. 21.10 Table 10. Estimated cost-yields & profits in Shade Net Houses and Table 11. The Installations inside Shade Net Houses. 21.11 Production cost for Tunnels and possible yields. 21.12 Tomato problems that could be expected in Greenhouses.
HARVESTING HANDLING AND PACKAGING PRODUCE 22.1 When to harvest. 22.2 Post harvest. 22.3 Grading. 22.4 Packaging. 22.5 Cooling and deterioration. 22.6 Storage. 22.7 Planning the pack house and make sure to do this correctly.
MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING 23.1 Management. 23.2 Marketing.
CROPS 25. Tomatoes. 26. Cucurbits: pumpkin/squash, melons, watermelons. 27. Brasicas or cole crops: cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, turnips, Chinese cabbage, Brussels sprouts. 28. Onions. 29. Sweet potatoes. 30. Capsicums, Peppers, chilies, paprika and pepper dews. 31. Spinach. 32. Beetroot. 33. Carrots. 34. Beans. 35. Lettuce. 36. Sweet corn and green mealy. 37. Garlic.
Hydroponics indeterminate tomato production in a Shade Net House plants are trellised up to the 2.5m horizontal supporting wire and pruned to the one stem method
Indeterminate long shelf tomato production in soil trellised up to the 2m horizontal supporting wire and box with baler twine – special wide cultivars are used to establish this method
Lettuce produced in a Gravel Flow (NFT) Technique Hydroponics System the plastic hydro lines are16m long 1m filled with a thin layer of gravel 4.5cm deep the system were designed by the author – built by labourers of the ARC Roodeplaat See Chapter 21.13 p 140
Different open field vegetable crops cultivar produced in soil using the and one-stem pruning method and spinach trellis.